Functional Skills: Addition and Subtraction

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Functional Skills: Addition and Subtraction Revision

Addition and Subtraction

Addition (+) and subtraction (-) are the basic building blocks of mathematical problems you will encounter. Column Methods are used to add or subtract large numbers without a calculator. If you are allowed a calculator, addition and subtraction problems are fairly straightforward, you just need to know when to use them.

Make sure you are happy with the following topics before continuing.

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When do we Add?

You need to know when to add. You will be given questions based on real-life problems, and you may not be told what calculation to use in order to answer it. You will need to be able to interpret the question as an addition problem.

Example: Joshua is ordering a takeaway from an online takeaway platform. The cost of the takeaway, service charge and delivery fee are shown below.

How much will it cost Joshua if he picks up the food himself?

 

We need to add together the price of the food and the service charge. We do not need to add on the delivery fee since Joshua is picking up the food. So, the calculation is:

\textcolor{red}{£32} + \textcolor{red}{£2} = \textcolor{red}{£34}

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Addition Column Method

Here, we will look at the Column Method for addition.

Example: Calculate 2347 + 581

Step 1: Write the numbers one above the other, making the units line up. Then, draw a line underneath the numbers.

Step 2: Now, add the units,

7 + 1 =  \textcolor{red}{8}

and write the result underneath.

Step 3: Then, add the tens,

4 + 8 = 12

the \textcolor{red}{2} (the unit) gets written underneath. The \textcolor{orange}{1} (the ten) gets written above the 3 (it gets carried).

Step 4: Then, add the hundreds, making sure to add the \textcolor{orange}{1} that was carried

\textcolor{orange}{1} + 3 + 5 = \textcolor{red}{9}

and write the result underneath.

Step 5: Finally, with only one value in the thousands column, write it below.

So,

2347 + 581 = \textcolor{red}{2928}

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When do we Subtract?

You need to know when to subtract. You will be given questions based on real-life problems, and you may not be told what calculation to use to answer it. You will need to be able to interpret the question as a subtraction problem.

Example: Katie buys a hot dog. The hot dog costs \textcolor{blue}{£3}. She pays with a \textcolor{blue}{£20} note.

How much change should Katie get back?

 

We need to take away the cost of the hot dog from the amount she paid with.

So, the calculation is:

\textcolor{blue}{£20} - \textcolor{blue}{£3} = \textcolor{blue}{£17}

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Subtraction Column Method

Here, we will look at the Column Method for subtraction.

Example: Calculate 3407 - 1625

Step 1: Write the numbers one above the other, making the units line up.

Step 2: First, subtract the units,

7 - 5 = \textcolor{red}{2}

writing the result underneath the units.

Step 3: Subtracting the tens would give a negative. So, instead we “borrow” a \textcolor{orange}{1} from the next column. The 0 in the tens column becomes a 10 and the 4 in the hundreds column is reduced to a \textcolor{blue}{3}.

10 - 2 = \textcolor{red}{8}

Step 4: Like step 3, we borrow from the next column. \textcolor{blue}{3}00 becomes \textcolor{orange}{1}\textcolor{blue}{3}00, and 3000 becomes \textcolor{blue}{2}000

\textcolor{orange}{1}\textcolor{blue}{3} - 6 = \textcolor{red}{7}

Step 5: Finally,

\textcolor{blue}{2} - 1 = \textcolor{red}{1}

So,

3407 - 1625 = \textcolor{red}{1782}

Note: When you need to borrow a 1 but the next digit along is a 0, reduce the 0 to a 9. Then, look at the next digit to the left and borrow the 1 from that also (meaning you have to reduce that digit by 1, as well the other digit you previously reduced). You can repeat this until there are no digits remaining.

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Addition and Subtraction on a Calculator

To add or subtract (or do any calculation) on a calculator, make sure you follow these steps:

Step 1: Make sure the display on the calculator says \textcolor{orange}{0}

Step 2: Press the buttons to input the calculation

Step 3: Check that you have inputted the calculation correctly

Step 4: Press the \textcolor{orange}{=} button

 

Example: Harley and Ken are trying to save for a new car. Harley has \textcolor{orange}{£1120} saved up and Ken has \textcolor{orange}{£895} saved up.

How much have they saved altogether?

 

The calculation that you need to input into your calculator is \textcolor{orange}{£1120 + £895}

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Note:

Addition and subtraction are opposite calculations, so you can check your answer by doing the opposite calculation, e.g. to check that 34 + 180 = 214, either do 214 - 180 = 34 or 214 - 34 = 180. This method also works for multiplication and division.

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Example 1: Addition Problems

In a pet home, there are 114 dogs, 73 cats and 15 rabbits, and no other pets. How many pets are in the pet home altogether?

[1 mark]

The total number of pets is the number of dogs, cats and rabbits added together.

Number of pets = \textcolor{red}{114 + 73 + 15} = \textcolor{limegreen}{202}

 

Note: This can be done using the Column Method if you don’t have a calculator, or using a calculator if you have one.

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Example 2: Subtraction Problems

Elsie invites 342 people to a party. 23 people do not turn up to the party, and after 2 hours of the party, 124 people have left. How many people are remaining?

[1 mark]

You need to subtract 23 and 124 from 342 to find how many people are remaining.

People remaining = \textcolor{blue}{342 - 23 - 124} = \textcolor{limegreen}{195}

 

Note: This can be done using the Column Method if you don’t have a calculator, or using a calculator if you have one, just like for addition.

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Example 3: Addition and Subtraction Problems

Vivienne buys a new jumper for £30 and a new pair of trousers for £18. She has a £5 voucher on any purchase.

How much does she she spend on clothes?

[2 marks]

Step 1: Add up the cost of the clothes:

\textcolor{red}{£30 + £18 = £48}

Step 2: Take away the voucher cost:

\textcolor{red}{£48} - \textcolor{blue}{£5} = \textcolor{limegreen}{£43}

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Functional Skills: Addition and Subtraction Example Questions

Use the Column Method for addition:

So, the answer is

4455+590=5045

Use the Column Method for subtraction:

So, the answer is

1105-822=283

We need to add £180, £60 and £34 to find how much she spends in total.

 

£180 + £60 + £34 = £274

We need to subtract 35 and 70 from 160 to find how many hours he has remaining:

 

160 - 35 - 70 = 55 hours remaining

 

He wants to take 60 hours, but only has 55, so he does not have enough.

Firstly, add £320 and £200:

£320 + £200 = £520

Then, subtract £40:

£520 - £40 = £480

Additional Resources

PFS

Exam Tips Cheat Sheet

FS Level 2
PFS

Formula Booklet

FS Level 2

Functional Skills: Addition and Subtraction Worksheet and Example Questions

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Addition and Subtraction EL3

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Addition and Subtraction L1, L2

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